Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of coordinating the information that supports a business’s operations. It involves storing and distributing data it to applications and users and editing it when needed as well as monitoring changes in data and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s overall informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that organize data according to some scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of fields called attributes that represent facts about data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most widely used type of database currently. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the necessity of changing many sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is focused on the cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views based on different data models and could include virtual tables that are computed with generic data to enhance the performance.

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